logo

study materials

自主学习资料

搜集国内外高校在线教学资源

自主学习资料...

Medicine cabinet III

2017.12.12 0+

Erectile Dysfunction

What I call 'em

man's best friend

They are used for

impotency

Examples

  • Cialis (tadalafil)

  • Levitra(vardenafil)

  • Viagra (sildenafil)


Erectile dysfunction, what used to be called “impotency”, is the inability to achieve or sustain an erection sufficient to complete intercourse. The three current oral medications for this complaint work by a similar mechanism. Achieving an erection depends upon an hydraulic function of increasing blood flow into the penis at a rate faster than the penile veins can drain it away. Sexual stimulation causes a chemical, nitric oxide, to be released by the lining of the penile arteries which causes relaxation of the muscles of the arterial walls resulting in dilating (widening) of the arteries and increased blood flow. Each of these drugs contain a chemical that slows down the destruction of nitrous oxide so the latter prolongs the dilation of the penile arteries. Note that the medication must act on existing nitric oxide released by sexual stimulation. Popping a pill is not enough. No sexual stimulation. No erection.

Although these drugs work by a similar mechanism, they may differ in their effectiveness in individual patients, side effects and drug interactions.

Hypnotics

What I call 'em

sleeping pills

They are used for

insomnia

Examples

  • Ambien (zolpidemtartrate)

  • Lunesta (eszopiclone)

  • Sonata (zaleplon)


Chronic insomnia, not being able to get to sleep, frequent waking up, not getting enough sleep, can ruin your day! People with sleeping problems may feel drowsy, even nod off, during the work day. Chronic fatigue from lack of sufficient rest is physically and emotionally draining. Hypnotics are sleep-inducing drugs. Their activity is similar to anti-anxiety medications (see “downers” in the list), tamping down brain activity so you can more easily fall asleep and stay asleep. Hypnotics differ in emphasis. Some are most effective in helping you fall asleep, but are very short acting, and may not be very effective for staying asleep. Others are more effective in minimizing number of awakenings for up to eight hours. All hypnotics have a sedation effect. So, you still may be drowsy during the day, but from medication effects. Your physician can best determine the choice of drug and dosage that will balance a good night’s rest with minimal or no daytime sedation.

Hypoglycemic agents

What I call 'em

diabetic drugs

They are used for

lowers high blood sugar

Examples

  • Diabeta (Glyburide)

  • Glucophage (metformin)

  • Glucotrol (glipizide)

  • Insulin

Osteoporosis therapy

What I call 'em

mom's bone pills

They are used for

strengthens bones

Examples

  • Actonel (risendronate)

  • Boniva (ibandronate)

  • Fosamax (alendronate)

Tranquilizers

What I call 'em

downers

They are used for

anxiety

Examples

  • Valium (diazepam)

  • Xanax (alprazolam)


From time to time we all feel stressed about our job or what our teenagers are up to, but we manage to get on with our lives. Sometimes, however, we feel constantly on edge and overwhelmed with worry to the point that it interferes with tasks of daily living. The normal “fear” response takes over inappropriately, and we become immobilized with anxiety. These medications may supplement the support from loved ones and professional counseling. The most commonly used tranquilizers (anxiolytics, antianxiety drugs) have two major actions: to reduce anxiety and to sedate (sleep-inducing). The basic mechanism is to inhibit activity in the area of the brain associated with “fear”. The challenge for your physician is to choose a medication that will reduce anxiety without your falling asleep at your work during the day!